Two Dimensional Array

It is a collection of data elements of same data type arranged in rows and columns (that is, in two dimensions).

Declaration of Two-Dimensional Array

Type arrayName[numberOfRows][numberOfColumn];

For example,
int Sales[3][5];

array two dimensional

Initialization of Two-Dimensional Array

An two-dimensional array can be initialized along with declaration. For two-dimensional array initialization, elements of each row are enclosed within curly braces and separated
by commas. All rows are enclosed within curly braces.
int A[4][3] = {{22, 23, 10},
              {15, 25, 13},
              {20, 74, 67},
              {11, 18, 14}};

Referring to Array Elements

To access the elements of a two-dimensional array, we need a pair of indices: one for
the row position and one for the column position. The format is as simple as:
name[rowIndex][columnIndex]

Examples:
cout<<A[1][2];      //print an array element
A[1][2]=13;         // assign value to an array element
cin>>A[1][2];       //input element

Using Loop to input an Two-Dimensional Array from user

int mat[3][5], row, col ;
for (row = 0; row < 3; row++)
  for (col = 0; col < 5; col++)
    cin >> mat[row][col];

Arrays as Parameters

Two-dimensional arrays can be passed as parameters to a function, and they are passed by reference. When declaring a two-dimensional array as a formal parameter, we can omit the size of the first dimension, but not the second; that is, we must specify the number of columns. For example: 
   void print(int A[][3],int N, int M)
In order to pass to this function an array declared as:
   int arr[4][3];
we need to write a call like this:
   print(arr);
Here is a complete example: 

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void print(int A[][3],int N, int M)
{
  for (R = 0; R < N; R++)
    for (C = 0; C < M; C++)
       cout << A[R][C];
}

int main ()
{
  int arr[4][3] ={{12, 29, 11},
                  {25, 25, 13},
                  {24, 64, 67},
                  {11, 18, 14}};
  print(arr,4,3);
  return 0;
}

Function to read the array A

void Read(int A[][20], int N, int M)
{
  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)
    for(int C=0;C<M;C++)
    {
      cout<<"(R<<','<<")?";
      cin>>A[R][C];
     }
}

Function to display content of a two dimensional array A

void Display(int A[][20],int N, int M)
{
  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)
  {
     for(int C=0;C<M;C++)
        cout<<setw(10)<<A[R][C];
     cout<<endl;
   }
}

Function to find the sum of two dimensional arrays A and B

void Addition(int A[][20], int B[][20],int N, int M)
{
  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)
    for(int C=0;C<M;C++)
      C[R][C]=A[R][C]+B[R][C];
}

Function to multiply two dimensional arrays A and B of order NxL and LxM

void Multiply(int A[][20], int B[][20], int C[][20],int N, int L, int M)
{
  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)
   for(int C=0;C<M;C++)
   {
      C[R][C]=0;
      for(int T=0;T<L;T++)
        C[R][C]+=A[R][T]*B[T][C];
    }
}

Function to find & display sum of rows & sum of cols. of a 2 dim. array A

void SumRowCol(int A[][20], int N, int M)
{
  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)
  {
     int SumR=0;
     for(int C=0;C<M;C++)
       SumR+=A[R][C];
     cout<<"Row("<<R<<")="<<SumR<<endl;
   }
  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)
  {
    int SumR=0;
    for(int C=0;C<M;C++)
      SumR+=A[R][C];
    cout<<"Row("<<R<<")="<<SumR<<endl;
   }
}

Function to find sum of diagonal elements of a square matrix A

void Diagonal(int A[][20], int N, int &Rdiag, int &LDiag)
{
  for(int I=0,Rdiag=0;I<N;I++)
    Rdiag+=A[I][I];
  for(int I=0,Ldiag=0;I<N;I++)
    Ldiag+=A[N-I-1][I];
}

Function to find out transpose of a two dimensional array A

void Transpose(int A[][20], int B[][20],int N, int M)
{
  for(int R=0;R<N;R++)
    for(int C=0;C<M;C++)
       B[R][C]=A[C][R];
}